YAG

Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (YAG)

Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (YAG)

Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (YAG) is a new substrate and optical material that can be used for UV and IR optics. It is useful for optical components in wide spectrum band from 250-5000 nm. The mechanical and chemical stability of YAG is similar to that of Sapphire, but YAG is not birefringent and can be polished to surface quality Scratch/Dig - 10/5. YAG shows no trace absorbtion in the 2 - 3 µm region where Glasses tend to be highly absorbent because of the strong H2O band. YAG is commonly used for high-temperature and high-energy applications, in industrial, medical and scientific fields due to high strength and another advantages, like physically hardness, high bulk damage threshold, high index of refraction, excellent thermal conductivity and no absorption in the 2-3 µm range.

We use for our optics high quality crystals growth on the Czochralsky technique. The undoped YAG single crystals can be polished to a high quality laser finish, thus making an ideal substrate for robust dielectric optical components, lens ducts, prisms and mirrors.

Optical Property
Transmission Range, µm 0.21 to 5.3
Refractive Index, at 1.064 µm 1.82
Reflection Loss, % for two surfaces at 1.064 µm 16.7%
Termooptical factor (dn/dT), at 633 nm 7.3 x 10-6 x °K-1
Physical Property
Density, g/cm3 (20°C) 4.56
Solubility Insoluble in water
Type of Material single crystal, synthetic
Crystal Structure cubic
Melting Point, at °C 1940
Thermal conductivity, W x cm-1 x °K-1 0.14
Thermal Expansion, 1/°C 7.8 x 10-6
Specific Heat Capacity, J/(kg · K) at 0 °C 590
Dielectric Constant 11.7
Young´s Modulus (E), GPa 300
Elastic Coefficients C11 = 333
C12 = 111
C44 = 115
Apparent Elastic Limit, MPa 280
Hardness (Mohs) ~8,5

Neodymium doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Y3A15O12:Nd3+)

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Neodymium doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Y3A15O12:Nd3+) laser crystal is the most wildly used in industrial, medical and scientific applications. Its main advantages are: low threshold, high efficiency, low loss at 1.064 µm, as well as high optical quality, good thermal conductivity and thermal shock characteristics, stable chemical and mechanical properties, which make Nd:YAG as the most suitable and commercial laser material for all types of solid-state lasers.

Properties

Chemical formula Nd3+:Y3Al5O12
Crystal structure Cubic
Dopant concentration, at.% 0.5 - 1.2
Lattice constant, A 12.01
Density, g/cm3 4.56
Melting Point, °C 1950
Dielectric constant 11.7
Mohs hardness 8.5
Thermal expansion coefficient 7.8 x 10-6 x °K-1, <111>

8.2 x 10-6 x °K-1, <100>
Thermal conductivity at 25°C, W x cm-1 x °K-1 0.14
Loss coefficient at 1064 nm, cm-1 0.003
Refractive index, at 1 µm 1.82

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Erbium doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:Y3Al5O12 or Er:YAG)

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Erbium doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:Y3Al5O12 or Er:YAG) laser crystal has large advantage in the 2.94 µm wavelength range. Er:YAG has high optical quality, low scattering losses, higher output, stable chemical and mechanical properties and is ideal for hard tissue removal. Er:YAG is a crystal with a wide pump band of 600 - 800 nm. All these properties make Er:YAG crystals excellent for such applications like surgery, dentistry and other medical fields.

Properties
Chemical formula Er:Y3Al5O12
Crystal structure Cubic
Dopant concentration, at.% 1 - 50%
Lattice constant, A 12.00
Density, g/cm3 5.35
Melting Point, ºC 1970
Dielectric constant 11.7
Mohs hardness 8.5
Thermal expansion coefficient 7.7 x 10-6 x ºK-1, <111> 8.2 x 10-6 x ºK-1, <100>
Thermal conductivity at 25ºC, W x cm-1 x ºK-1 0.12
Loss coefficient at 1064 nm, cm-1 0.003
Laser Wavelength, nm 2940
Index of refraction, at 2940 nm 1.79

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Ytterbium doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Yb:Y3Al5O12 or Yb:YAG)

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Ytterbium doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Yb:Y3Al5O12 or Yb:YAG) is one of the most promising laser-active materials and more suitable for diode-pumping than the traditional Nd-doped crystals. It can generate 1.03 µm laser output pumped at 940 nm. Yb:YAG main advantages are: large absorption bandwidth, high output power and excellent emission. Yb:YAG laser material is widely used for industrial lasers, such as metal cutting and welding. Also this crystal is applicable to electronic, optic, laser technology.
Main properties
Chemical formula Yb3+:Y3Al5O12
Crystal structure Cubic
Dopant concentration, at.% 5 - 30 %
Lattice constant, A 12.01
Density, g/cm3 4.56
Melting Point, °C 1970
Mohs hardness 8.5
Thermal expansion coefficient 7.8 x 10-6 x °K-1, <111>
Thermal conductivity at 25°C, W x cm-1 x °K-1 0.14
Loss coefficient at 1064 nm, cm-1 0.003
Laser Wavelength, nm 1030
Refractive index, at 1 µm 1.82

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